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Fotomorfogénesis en agricultura

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El color, la frecuencia y la intensidad de la luz tienen incidencia en el crecimiento y la productividad de las plantas, a este fenómeno se le llama fotomorfogénesis. Se prevé que su estudio se popularizará en el futuro, porque dadas las condiciones globales, la agricultura irá mudando de extensos terrenos en el campo a espacios cerrados y controlados.

José Ernesto Olvera González, profesor investigador del Instituto Tecnológico de Pabellón de Arteaga —que forma parte del Tecnológico Nacional de México (Tecnm)—, comenzó su interés por esta línea de investigación cuando estudiaba la maestría en la Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro (UAQ), entonces, el director de la facultad regresó de una estancia en Japón con proyectos de estudios que allá se estaban realizando en distintos sectores, como el automotriz y agroindustrial, uno de ellos consistía en la instalación de luces en peceras para modificar la estructura de las plantas.

A partir de entonces, ha estudiado la luz artificial, un área multidisciplinaria que involucra temas como la biología, mecatrónica y óptica, que ha derivado en la redacción de varios artículos científicos sobre la respuesta de la luminosidad, además de permitirle desarrollar un novedoso sistema de iluminación.

Agencia Informativa Conacyt (AIC): ¿En qué consiste la fotomorfogénesis?

José Ernesto Olvera González (JEOG): Fotomorfogénesis es la forma que toma la planta a la luz que recibe. Desde la primaria sabíamos que cuando sembrábamos un frijol en el algodón y lo poníamos en una caja de zapatos, si le hacíamos un hoyo aislado a donde estaba el frijol, pues esta planta iba a salir por ese hoyo, se iba a elongar, iba a doblarse y salir por ahí. Ese fenómeno se llama fototropismo, que es parte del fenómeno que genera la luz cuando no es directa a la planta.

Todos estos parámetros son los que modifican el crecimiento de la planta, unos para modificar procesos biológicos y otros para modificar sus procesos físicos o su estructura física, por ejemplo: si creces plantas con luz roja, vas a obtener plantas altas y delgadas, y si creces con luz azul, vas a tener el efecto contrario, plantas más gordas pero más chaparritas.

AIC: ¿En qué se han enfocado sus estudios?

JEOG: Ya sabemos más o menos cómo son los efectos de la luz, cuál es la interacción física entre la luz y la planta, porque la planta cuando recibe la luz, una se refleja, una se atraviesa y una se absorbe, y en eso tiene mucho que ver cómo está la superficie de la planta, hay una hojas que son más corrugadas que otras, por lo tanto el efecto físico de la luz con la planta es diferente.

José Ernesto Olvera González.Ya tenemos más o menos un comportamiento, lo que hicimos fue proponer qué pasa con la luz pulsada, qué pasa si pulsas la luz en lugar de darla continua, que es lo que más o menos se venía trabajando, casi todos los trabajos de investigación hablaban de luz continua.

En muchas fuentes no es posible pulsar la luz, por ejemplo, las fluorescentes no puedes pulsar la luz a diferentes frecuencias, entonces al momento que usamos nosotros led, podemos pulsar la luz prácticamente a las frecuencias que queramos, entonces ahí fue cuando comenzamos con los experimentos.

AIC: ¿Cómo surgió esta línea de investigación?

JEOG: El tema nació porque los sistemas de producción agrícola en los próximos 15 años van a ser en ambientes artificiales, eso lo sabemos porque las tierras fértiles se están reduciendo, la población está creciendo, entonces va a haber una necesidad imperante: ¿dónde producir alimentos?, en lugares cerrados y en ambientes artificiales.

Como sabemos que eso va a venir, si pulsas la luz, de entrada tienes un ahorro energético, porque lo que vas a hacer es empezar a ahorrar en los procesos de producción. Si pulsamos la luz, ahorras energía que normalmente estarías consumiendo con luz continua, ahí fue la parte que justificaba el pulsado.

Pero desde el punto de vista biológico, entendíamos en ese momento que la planta para poder crecer, para hacer su proceso fotosintético, recibe luz, y es como unas baterías que tiene al interior, entonces se carga y después las plantas usan esa energía para desprender procesos internos, como absorber el dióxido de carbono o descomponer el agua en hidrógeno y oxígeno.

Si le damos luz continua, todo el tiempo estamos cargando esas pequeñas celdas, entonces había momentos en donde la planta ya no absorbía luz, porque estaba descargando para hacer los otros procesos, es cuando ya saturábamos de luz.

AIC: ¿Qué resultados han obtenido?

JEOG: Dentro de los resultados hubo frecuencias mejores que la luz continua, y peores que la luz continua, entonces dentro del rango de frecuencias que estudiamos, hubo frecuencias favorables y frecuencias nocivas.

Tuvimos resultados favorables con frecuencias de más o menos 0.1 a 10 hertz, o sea, frecuencias bajas, lentas. El espectro que analizamos fue desde 0.1 hertz hasta 500 kilohertz, y las frecuencias más lentas tuvieron mejores resultados que las frecuencias más altas, las frecuencias más altas estuvieron por debajo del valor de luz continua, que era nuestro modelo de referencia.

Aquí, un punto importante a considerar, cuando hablamos de frecuencia en el término de la luz, también tenemos que hablar del término del ciclo de trabajo, por ejemplo, si dices que un segundo está prendida la luz, y luego la apagas, y luego un segundo la vuelves a prender y luego la apagas, estamos hablando de un ciclo de trabajo de 50 por ciento, entonces 50 por ciento está prendido y 50 por ciento está apagado.

Estas frecuencias, por ejemplo, de 1 hertz, que es medio segundo prendido y medio segundo apagado, fueron las de mejor respuesta, pero eso también implica la intensidad con la cual se hizo, a 450 micromoles y 750 micromoles. La intensidad de luz, también ese es un factor importante, ¿qué hubiera pasado con esas frecuencias a menores intensidades?, eso es lo que estamos todavía analizando.

AIC: ¿A qué se refiere al señalar que hubo mejores resultados que con luz continua?

JEOG: Para poder establecer qué tratamiento de luz es mejor para la planta, tiene que medirse un proceso interno para saber qué tan eficiente se está haciendo este proceso, dentro del proceso de fotosíntesis podemos medir cuatro subprocesos, de estos cuatro medimos uno específicamente, que es el fotosistema 2, en el cual las plantas tienen su mayor número de receptores de luz, es por eso que analizamos ese subproceso.

Este fotosistema 2 se mide a través de una técnica que se llama fluorescencia de la clorofila: la planta al recibir luz, una se refleja, otra la atraviesa y otra se almacena, de la luz que se queda almacenada en la planta, una se desperdicia por calor, otra se usa en proceso fotosintético y otra se refleja por fluorescencia, este reflejo se mide con un fluorómetro.

Esta emisión de fluorescencia no debería de ser mucha, porque implica que la luz que absorbió no la está utilizando más para proceso fotosintético, porque mucha la está reflejando, la emisión de fluorescencia debe ser muy baja para considerar que la planta está trabajando bien, porque la luz que está recibiendo, la mayoría la está utilizando en proceso fotosintético, es decir, se está alimentando.

fuente: CONACYT

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